In the end of the XIX century the Imperial Novorossiyskiy University graduate and professor, the founder of agroecology of fruit crops, Leo Simirenko has created a well-known breed of apples – Platon Simirenka's Rennet. The inventor named the new breed in the honor of his father. Today «simirenka» is a leading industrial breed of apples in many countries of the world, a worldwide “trademark” of Ukrainian gardening.
The first national vaccine against anthrax was invented by Novorossiyskiy university professor Leo Tsenkovsky in 1883. During those years the epidemic was killing herds of agricultural animals, peasants’ communities were brought to ruin not only in Ukraine and Russia, but also in the Western Europe.
The vaccine against anthrax was created by Louis Pastaire in 1881 in Paris. Already in 1882 in France 400 000 head of cattle were successfully vaccinated. In some regions of the Russian empire it was decided to buy the vaccine in Paris, but the cattle vaccinated died. A big landowner from Kherson Kudryavtsev experienced the death of 80% of his vaccinated sheep. It was then when landowners addressed Tsenkovkiy for help. Pastaire did not give the prescription to the scientist, he only let him attend the vaccination itself.
Without any outside assistance, Leo Tsenkovskiy was able to create his vaccine against anthrax and cognize the mysteries of its controllable weakening, cleansing and conservation. For changing bacillary for of vaccine into more stable cryptogamic ones, Tsenkovskiy created the method which is totally different from Pastaire’s one: bouillon cultures of vaccine in the state of spores he diluted with the help of glycerine. Glycerine preserved vaccines, their immunizing qualities were saved without changes, which was impossible before. A new and original method of cleansing vaccines from ouside bacteries was elaborated. The technique involved putting vaccines through bodies of sensitive animals. Mice and ground squirrels were used. The first successful test of this vaccine was carried out in the summer of 1883. Tsenkoskiy’s vaccine saved the herds of agricultural animals. The scientist managed to eliminate the most terrible obstacle in practical usage of the vaccine – the inconsistency of its properties.
In 1892 in Paris Novorossiyskiy University graduate and Mechnikov’s student Vladimir Havkin created the first anti-choleric vaccine, with the help of which he was able to stop cholera epidemics in India and not let the disease spread in Europe. Five years later, in 1897, the scientist was the first in the world to vaccinate people against plague. He also organized an anti-cholera laboratory in Bombay.
Valerian Alexandrovych Fedoseev, a Physics professor at Odessa National University, was the first in the world to run a set of experiments in cloud suppression, suggesting and applying a method based on using hygroscopic substances. In 1936 the “Pravda” newspaper informed that clouds were dissipated over the Red Square during a military parade using Valerian Fedoseev’s method.
The professor of Zoology Sub-Department of Novorossiyskiy University Alexander Kovalevsky has become famous for shaping comparative embryology into a science. Together with Ilya Mechnikov, he has studied embryonic development of the majority of spineless class species and a number of chordates. Professor Kovalevsky is also called the father of insect embryology.
The known physicist, Imperial Novorossiyskiy University rector Feodor Shvedov in 1880s became the founder of dendrochronology – a world famous technique of studying annual rings of trees. Feodor Shvedov found out and described the correlation between the thickness of annual rings of trees and alternation of droughty and rainy years.
Geodynamics is a complex science about forces and processes which emerge as a result of evolution of Earth as a planet and define the movement of substance masses and energy within the Earth and its outermost solid shells. Alexander Orlov – professor and a long-standing director of the Odessa University astronomical observatory.
In 1915 he presented a doctoral thesis on topic : “The results of the Earth’s lunar and solar deformations observation” . The scientist discovered slow non-polar latitude changes and elaborated a way of separating and eliminating such changes (“Orlov’s method”). During his numerous expeditions and investigations Alexander Orlov received the most accurate Earth poles position data and information about their movements, he had been studying Earth tidal deformations, the Moon’s influence on the speed and direction of the wind. He also created and put into one grid all the gravimetric maps of Ukraine, the European part of Russia, Siberia and Altai. The results of Orlov’s latitudinal observations are stated in the book “Latitude service”, which was issued in 1958, while in 1961 the scientist’s “Selected works” have been published.
Odessa university student and Odessa laboratory worker Georgiy Gamov became world-famous in 1946 in the USA as “hot Universe” hypothesis (the “big bang” theory amendment) creator. Georgiy Gamov also was the first to put forward the genetic code hypothesis and created the quantum theory of α and β radioactive core disintegration.
The professor of chair of zoology Ilya Mechnikov told about phagocytosis (a basis for the future phagocytary immunity theories) discovery at the seventh congress of Russian scientists and doctors in Odessa in 1883. Ilya Mechnikov received the Nobel Prize for working out of the theory in 1908. The scientist also is considered to be the founder of evolutionary embryology and comparative inflammation pathology founder.
In 1974 a group of scientists under the supervision of ONU professor Alexey Vsevolodovich Bogatsky managed to create the first national tranquilizer – fenazepam. Fenazepam is prescribed to those who suffer various neurotic, psychopathic states, panic reactions, which are accompanied by anxiety, fear and excess irritability. The medicine is effective with phobia and hypochondria syndromes, it is also prescribed in cases of psychogenic psychosis and panic reactions, since it eliminates the states of anxiety and fear. A group of scientists under the supervision of ONU professor Bogatsky were awarded the USSR National Prize for synthesizing the substance in 1980.