семейный психолог одесса

University treasures

Transit circle “А.&G. Repsold” of 1862

The meridian circle of the Odessa Astronomical Observatory was created in 1862 and functions properly till our days. Initially the machine was made for the newly opened physical observatory in Tiflis (now Tbilisi, Georgia). Then it was planned that astronomical observations would be done there. However, soon the Tiflis Observatory changed the direction of its research and limited their studies only with meteorological observations. When the first director of the Odessa Observatory, master of astronomy Leopold Berkevich, found out about this, he set forth to the administration of the Novorossiysky University the issue of buying the transit circle. After obtaining approval and coordinating all necessary conditions of obtaining the needed instrument, he conducted the mutually beneficial exchange: eleven meteorological and physics instruments were transferred to Tiflis, with all expenses covered by the Odessans, and in exchange in 1871 the astronomical instrument made by the famous German company “А.&G. Repsold” was shipped to Odessa.
The meridian circle is an astronomic instrument, designed to determine the heavenly body’s co-ordinates. It is a telescope, which is able to aim at objects only in the dimension of the astronomic meridian. By measuring the vertex distances between stars at the moment of passing the astronomic meridian, as well as recording the moments of time of their passing, scientists can
distinguish the co-ordinates of stars.
In the beginning of the past century a famous mechanic of the University, inventor of the moving pictures camera Joseph Timchenko created a diaphragm and an apparatus for the transit circle, which automatically registered the co-ordinates of stars.
The incredibly exact apparatus became a real pride of the Odessa Observatory: over 150 thousand observations were made with its help. Due to the transit circle, three dozens of catalogues of the positions of heavenly bodies were compiled. Regardless of its age of one and a half century, the apparatus is in operative condition and is still often used for educational
purposes and guided tours.